Karen Livsey: Immigration and Land Settlement

SteveMorse.org: http://stevemorse.org/

The link for the screencast Jeff Kresge mentioned is http://screenr.com/

Immigration: the Changing Face of America - http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/presentationsandactivities/presentations/immigration/

The Chinese in California, 1850-1925 illustrates nineteenth and early twentieth century Chinese immigration to California through about 8,000 images and pages of primary source materials. http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/award99/cubhtml/cichome.html
Live and Times of Joseph Ellicott:

Holland Land Company Maps: http://www.wnylegacy.org/cdm4/browse.php?CISOROOT=/XFM001

The Holland Land Purchase and **Holland Land Company Records** PDF: www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~nycnygs/Holland_Land_Company.pdf -

Making Sense of Maps

Holland Land Company Map Collections

Holland Land Company Resources

Interpreting Maps
Historians often need to "read" nonwritten materials such as old maps. Historical maps include many of the things that modern maps do: bodies of water, country borders, locations of mountains, cities and towns. Historical maps can also tell us much about the people who drew them and what they both knew and did not know about a given geographical area. Many old maps are inaccurate compared to modern ones, but this does not make them useless to the historian.
Often the most important pieces of information that we can learn from historical maps are about the mapmakers themselves. Like other primary sources, old maps illuminate the mapmaker's understanding of the world. With this information, the map reader can often infer what people thought about these territories at the time the map was drawn.
For example: A world map drawn in 1500 by a Muslim mapmaker will look much different from one drawn by a Christian mapmaker. These maps will most likely emphasize different geographical areas and might place the central region of their own religion at the center of the map. Even if no textual records existed, the reader can learn a great deal about Christian and Muslim culture in 1500 by comparing the two maps. http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/history/benjamin/content/page10.htm

Reading and **Interpreting Historical Maps** www.macalester.edu/.../mapsofmn/.../Crampton_ReadingHistoricalMaps.pdf -

National Park Servioce: **Interpreting Historic Maps** www.nps.gov/.../Interpreting%20History%20Through%20Maps%20Student. pdf -

Ancestry.com - **Interpreting Map** Symbols http://www.ancestry.com/search/rectype/reference/maps/learn/map_symbols.aspx

Historic Maps in K-12 Classrooms:
Reading Historic Maps and General Resources on Cartography
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How to Read Historic Maps

A historic map is a map drawn or printed in the past that fosters study and comprehension of the geography or geographical ideas of the time and place in which it was produced. A historical map is a modern map made to illustrate some past geographical situation or event. Hence, a map of Boston published in 1775 is a historic map; while a map prepared in 2002 to show Boston in 1775 is a historical map.
Old maps, like other historic documents, can be difficult to read. Being old, they look different from modern maps. They often use different symbols and were drawn or printed by different methods than the maps we are accustomed to. And most importantly, many of them have errors that have been subsequently corrected. Many maps of North America published in the sixteenth century, for example, showed California as an island. This, of course, did not mean that California was an island 400 years ago-but it does mean that the cartographers of the time were mistaken. Old maps, then, must be read with a great deal of caution-but then, so do most modern maps. For all maps present the world through the lenses of the cartographer's incomplete knowledge, his or her biases and pet ideas, interests, the needs of the audience. The geographical mistakes on old maps should not be dismissed as fantasies and myths. Indeed, what makes historic maps potentially so powerful as teaching tools are the differences between them and those familiar to us today. These differences help us decipher how people understood the world around them, how they settled the land, how they moved about in it, and how they felt about their neighbors.
The curator's notes attached to each of the modules in this website are intended to help you decipher the maps you find here. We hope that they will give you insights you can both share with your students and apply to the reading of other maps you may encounter. If you or your students have not studied old maps before, you might want to use the attached to help you get started. The first page of this form asks some basic questions about a map, such as its title, orientation, and scale. From there, it asks you to consider how the context in which the made was made affected the way it was drawn, what it shows, and what it leaves out.
In order to make better use of maps in your classroom, you may also want to consult the General Resources on Cartography provided below. These explain the nuts and bolts of modern cartography from map projections, to graticules, to scales. And in some instances they also give you new ways to understand maps both old and new.
Bagrow, Leo and R. A. Skelton. History of Cartography. 2nd ed. Chicago, Ill.: New Brunswick, USA; Oxford, UK: Precedent Pub.; Distributed by Transaction Books, 1985.
Brown, Lloyd Arnold. The Story of Maps. Boston: Little, Brown, 1949., repr. 1980.
Buisseret, David, ed., From Sea Charts to Satellite Images: Interpreting North American History through Maps. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990.
Danzer, Gerald A. Discovering American History through Maps and Views. New York: HarperCollins, 1991.
Danzer, Gerald A. Discovering World History through Maps and Views. New York: HarperCollins, 1996.
Goss, John. The Mapmaker's Art: a History of Cartography. London: Studio Editions, 1993.
Goss, John. The Mapping of North America: Three Centuries of Map-Making. Secaucus, NJ: The Wellfleet Press, 1990.
Greenhood, David. Mapping. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1964.
Harley, J. B. and David Woodward. The History of Cartography. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987-.
Hodgkiss, A. G. Understanding Maps: a Systematic History of Their Use and Development. Folkestone, Kent: Dawson, 1981.
Holmes, Nigel. Pictorial Maps. New York: Watson-Guptill, 1991.
Monmonier, Mark S. and George A. Schnell. Map Appreciation. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1988.
Monmonier, Mark. How to Lie with Maps. 2nd ed. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Pearce, Margaret. Exploring Human Geography with Maps. New York: W.H. Freeman, 2003.
Ristow, Walter William. American Maps and Mapmakers: Commercial Cartography in the Nineteenth Century. Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1985.
Robinson, Arthur Howard. Elements of Cartography. 6th ed. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1995.
Schwartz, Seymour I. and Ralph E. Ehrenberg. The Mapping of America. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1980.
Southworth, Michael and Susan Southworth. Maps, a Visual Survey and Design Guide. Boston: Little, Brown, 1982.
Snyder, John Parr. Flattening the Earth; Two Thousand Years of Map Projections. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Stefoff, Rebecca. The Young Oxford Companion to Maps and Mapmaking. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995.
Thrower, Norman J. W. Maps and Civilization: Cartography and Culture in Society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1996.
Turnbull, David. Maps are Territories; Science is an Atlas. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1993.
Wilford, John Noble. The Mapmakers. New York: Knopf, 1981.
Wood, Denis and John Fels. The Power of Maps. New York: Guilford Press, 1992.
Additional Sources
For additional background, you may wish to consult a comprehensive Concise Bibliography of the History of Cartography based on the Newberry Library's fine cartographic reference collection.
For further information about the Newberry Library's map collection click here.
For a general introduction about the worldwide study of the history of cartography and links to other online map resources consult The History of Cartography homepage. This resource includes an index to teaching with old maps.

Making Sense of Maps: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/mse/maps/

American Time Capsule: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/rbpehtml/

The Printed Ephemera collection at the Library of Congress is a rich repository of Americana. In total, the collection comprises 28,000 primary-source items dating from the seventeenth century to the present and encompasses key events and eras in American history. An American Time Capsule, the online presentation of the Printed Ephemera collection, comprises 17,000 of the 28,000 physical items. More are scheduled to be digitized in the future. While the broadside format represents the bulk of the collection, there are a significant number of leaflets and some pamphlets. Rich in variety, the collection includes proclamations, advertisements, blank forms, programs, election tickets, catalogs, clippings, timetables, and menus. They capture the everyday activities of ordinary people who participated in the events of nation-building and experienced the growth of the nation from the American Revolution through the Industrial Revolution up to present day. A future final release will include thousands of oversize items in the collection.

Map Collections: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/gmdhtml/gmdhome.html

The Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress holds more than 4.5 million items, of which Map Collections represents only a small fraction, those that have been converted to digital form. The focus of Map Collections is Americana and Cartographic Treasures of the Library of Congress. These images were created from maps and atlases and, in general, are restricted to items that are not covered by copyright protection. Map Collections is organized according to seven major categories. Because a map will be assigned to only one category, unless it is part of more than one core collection, searching Map Collections at this level will provide the most complete results since the indexes for all categories are searched simultaneously.

19th Century Books: http://rs6.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpcoop/moahtml/ncphome.html

This collection comprises books and periodicals published in the United States during the nineteenth century, primarily during the second half of the century. Most of the materials were digitized through the Making of America project, a collaboration of Cornell University and the University of Michigan to preserve textual materials on deteriorating paper and make them accessible electronically. The materials selected illuminate the subject areas of education, psychology, American history, sociology, religion, and science and technology. Also included are volumes of American poetry.

Century of Lawmaking
: http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/amlaw/

Beginning with the Continental Congress in 1774, America's national legislative bodies have kept records of their proceedings. The records of the Continental Congress, the Constitutional Convention, and the United States Congress make up a rich documentary history of the construction of the nation and the development of the federal government and its role in the national life. These documents record American history in the words of those who built our government. Books on the law formed a major part of the holdings of the Library of Congress from its beginning. In 1832, Congress established the Law Library of Congress as a separate department of the Library. It houses one of the most complete collections of U.S. Congressional documents in their original format. In order to make these records more easily accessible to students, scholars, and interested citizens, A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation brings together online the records and acts of Congress from the Continental Congress and Constitutional Convention through the 43rd Congress, including the first three volumes of the Congressional Record, 18